Internetas – žmogaus teisė?

Neseniai JTO Žmogaus teisių tarybai pateiktame ir viešai paskelbtame specialiame pranešime apie teisės reikšti nuomonę ir jos skatinimą bei apsaugą, teigiama, kad prieiga prie interneto yra universali žmogaus teisė, kurios negalima riboti jokia dingstimi, įskaitant ir autorių teisių pažeidimą:

While blocking and filtering measures deny users access to specific content on the Internet, States have also taken measures to cut off access to the Internet entirely. The Special Rapporteur considers cutting off users from Internet access, regardless of the justification provided, including on the grounds of violating intellectual property rights law, to be disproportionate and thus a violation of article 19, paragraph 3, of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

 Pabrėžiant interneto svarbą, valstybės narės raginamos užtikrinti prieigą prie interneto visiems gyventojų sluoksniams:

Given that the Internet has become an indispensable tool for realizing a range of human rights, combating inequality, and accelerating development and human progress, ensuring universal access to the Internet should be a priority for all States. Each State should thus develop a concrete and effective policy, in consultation with individuals from all sections of society, including the private sector and relevant Government ministries, to make the Internet widely available, accessible and affordable to all segments of population.

Be to, yra gana įdomių pastebėjimų apie anonimiškumą internete:

The Special Rapporteur is concerned that, while users can enjoy relative anonymity on the Internet, States and private actors have access to technology to monitor and collect information about individuals’ communications and activities on the Internet. Such practices can constitute a violation of Internet users’ right to privacy, and undermine people’s confidence and security on the Internet, thus impeding the free flow of information and ideas online.



The Special Rapporteur underscores the obligation of States to adopt effective privacy and data protection laws in accordance with article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Human Rights Committee’s general comment No. 16. This includes laws that clearly guarantee the right of all individuals to ascertain in an intelligible form whether, and if so what, personal data is stored in automatic data files, and for what purposes, and which public authorities or private individuals or bodies control or may control their files.



He also calls upon States to ensure that individuals can express themselves anonymously online and to refrain from adopting real-name registration systems. Under certain exceptional situations where States may limit the right to privacy for the purposes of administration of criminal justice or prevention of crime, the Special Rapporteur underscores that such measures must be in compliance with the international human rights framework, with adequate safeguards against abuse. This includes ensuring that any measure to limit the right to privacy is taken on the basis of a specific decision by a State authority expressly empowered by law to do so, and must respect the principles of necessity and proportionality.


Jei teisingai supratau, rudenį šis pranešimas turėtų būti svarstomas JTO generalinėje asamblėjoje.

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